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Pearson BioCoach: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/index.html




KEYSTONE ASSESSMENT ANCHOR BIO.A.1 Basic Biological Principles (9 d)

Anchor Descriptor/ Eligible Content
BIO.A.1.1 Explain the characteristics common to all organisms.
BIO.A.1.1.1 Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.


Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
BIO.A.1.2 Describe relationships between structure and function at biological levels of organization.
BIO.A.1.2.1 Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
BIO.A.1.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multicellular organisms).


Scientific Method Interactive
Characteristics of Life Interactive
Biological Hierarchy Interactive


GREAT LINKS:


Review of Scientific Method
Observations
Inferences
Lab Equipment
Measurement
POHEC
Safety


CHAPTER 2.1 WHAT IS LIFE? (p. 34)
http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/martin_hanczyc_the_line_between_life_and_not_life.html

BIO.A.1.1 Explain the characteristics common to all organisms

All life
a)is composed of 1 or more cells
b)has organic chemical composition
c)metabolizes
d)reponds to stimulus/adapts
e)grows/develops
f)reproduces

spontaneous generation was refuted by what two famous experiments?
Redi
Pasteur


BIO.A.4.2.1 Explain how organisms maintain homeostasis (e.g., thermoregulation, water regulation, oxygen regulation).

homeostasis: the balancing of internal mechanisms in cells and organisms (food in/waste out; water in/urine out; oxygen in/carbon dioxide out, etc)
homeostasis.gif 2f3b78a8757fc85b5f0c1070410139c9.wix_mp.jpg
http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/endocrine/adam-200092.htm



Ch. 2.2 (TAXONOMY) Classifying Organisms (p. 42)

Section 2: Classifying Organisms(p. 42) DOMAIN_KINGDOM _PHYLUM_CLASS_ORDER_FAMILY_GENUS_SPECIES
"Daring Kids Play Chess Outside For Good Skills"

Study Help: http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookDivers_class.html

a) taxonomy: classification of organisms
b) Who is Carolus Linneaus and what is his role in early biology?
c) What is binomial nomenclature?
d) define species
e) find three different hybrid organisms that exist that are created by breeding two different species to form a new organism (note: a JACKALOPE is not a hybrid as it is not REAL):list their names and describe them.
f) What are the 3 Domains under which all life can be placed? Divide the domains up into their proper Kingdoms.

six_kingdoms.jpg


More: http://www.wix.com/lmayo22/biology/page-1#!page-2

In the Phylum Chordata (Spinal-Corded organisms), there are several classes of organisms
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/chordate.htm

Ch.2.2 Classification Project: CREATE A TAXONOMIC DICHOTOMOUS KEY (due Tuesday September 22)
Create a dichotomous key that could be used to separate any organism into its proper class in the taxonomic system of organisms.

1) Use example dichotomous key to understand how it is created as a tool for identifying things.
2) The key should begin with the three domains then move to the 6 kingdoms, then on to the phyla. The phylum will be the final stage in the key.
3) Be sure you use proper scientific criteria for each dichotomous question.



KEYSTONE ASSESSMENT ANCHOR BIO.A.1.2.1 & 1.2.2 Cell Structure & Function


Chapter 2, Section 3: Discovering Cells (p. 50)

BIO.A.1.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multicellular organisms).

The basic unit of structure and function of all living things is the cell. Anything less than a cell can never be considered a functioning unit of or an entire organism.


http://www.brainpop.com/technology/scienceandindustry/microscopes/

  • History of the Microscope
  • The Cell Theory
  • The Compound Light Microscope: Parts & Usage


Chapter 2, Section 4: Looking Inside Cells (p. 60)
TYPICAL PROKARYOTIC CELL
prokcell.jpg
BIO.A.1.1.1 Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
BIO.A.1.2 Describe relationships between structure and function at biological levels of organization.
BIO.A.1.2.1 Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Section 4 LOOKING INSIDE CELLS
vocab: cell wall, cell membrane, organelles, cytoplasm, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi body, chloroplasts, vacuole, lysosome.
1) list the role of each vocab term in the functioning cell.
2) Explain and diagram the major differences between a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic plant cell, and a eukaryotic animal cell.












vs.

TYPICAL EUKARYOTIC CELLS


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CELL PARTS INTERACTIVES:

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cells/intro.html

http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP11403

hierarchy.jpg

BIO.A.1.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multicellular organisms).









































Chapter 2 Test, Fri. Oct 14th:

  • Be able to define all vocabulary from the chapter
  • Understand what it means to be an organism
  • Understand homeostasis
  • Be able to determine an organism's Domain & Kingdom
  • Know the Taxonomic Hierarchy in order from Domain down to species and how they relate to one another
  • Be able to use a dichotomous key
  • Know the major events in the history of the microscope
  • Know the parts of the microscope
  • Know how to use a microscope and how to calculate magnification given the eyepiece and objective powers
  • Know how prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells and how animal cells differ from plant and fungi
  • Be able to identify the parts and functions of the organelles common to all cells
  • Know the hierarchy of functional organization from atom to organism
  • Understand the concept of FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION

CHECK YOURSELF
1) An object from another planet is found to move and change under certain conditions. Based on this information alone, can you tell if it is an organism or not? Explain.
2) A cell is discovered on Mars and after close examination, it has golgi and mitochondria. What is its domain, and how do you know?
3) If the human pancreas detects a rise in blood sugar in the bloodstream after a meal, what homrome is released to maintain homeostasis?
4) If organism A & B are taxonomically identical up to the same family but not genus AND organism C & D share the same taxonomy up to the same class but not order: which pair of organisms is more closely related to one another?
5) Your organism is of the Kingdom Animalia. This is all that is given. What should be the next question that you would ask if you were creating a dichotomous key of Kingdom Animalia?
6) Who discovered the cellulose cell walls left in cork bark?
7) Who observed the first living cells and built a compound microscope?
8) What type of microscope sends electrons down that bounce off of the surface and give a topographic picture of the outer surface of something?
9) Which part of the microscope do you look through?
10) How much magnified is a fly leg that is under a compound light microscope that's eyepiece is 10x and the objective is on medium at 15x?
11) Cells work together to function as a unit called what?
12) If form follows function in biology, why does an eagle have a different beak than a duck?


KEYSTONE ASSESSMENT ANCHOR BIO.A.2 The Chemical Basis for Life (21 d)
Anchor Descriptor/ Eligible Content
BIO.A.2.1 Describe how the unique properties of water support life on Earth.
BIO.A.2.1.1 Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth
(e.g., freezing point, high specific heat, cohesion).


Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
BIO.A.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biochemical organization (i.e., atoms, molecules, and macromolecules).
BIO.A.2.2.1 Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules.
BIO.A.2.2.2 Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers.
BIO.A.2.2.3 Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in
organisms.


Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
BIO.A.2.3 Explain how enzymes regulate biochemical reactions within a cell.
BIO.A.2.3.1 Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction.
BIO.A.2.3.2 Explain how factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function

CHAPTER 3 - CELL PROCESSES & ENERGY

Section 1 Vocabulary: atom, molecule, element, compound, organic, macro molecule, monomer, polymer, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, amino acid, enzyme, nucleic acid


WATER: THE MICKEY MOUSE MOLECULE:__
(vocab) specific heat, latent heat of fusion, polar molecule, density, heat of vaporization, cohesion, adhesion, solvent

BIO.A.2.1 Describe how the unique properties of water support life on Earth.
BIO.A.2.1.1 Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth
(e.g., freezing point, high specific heat, cohesion).
water_molecules.jpg
  • Earth is the only planet in our Solar System that has liquid water
  • two hydrogen atoms bound to one oxygen atom comprises a water molecule
  • water exists on Earth naturally in all 3 states of matter: solid, liquid, gas
  • water is a polar molecule; this means that a portion of it is lightly positive and another portion slightly negative in electrical charge
  • because of its polarity, water exhibits a property called cohesion (it likes to stick to itself) and adhesion (it likes to stick to other things)
  • water is the UNIVERSAL solvent as it dissolves so many solutes!
  • water is a heat sink - it hold its temperature very well due to its high capacity for heat







http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CT4pURpXkbY



Chapter 3: Cell Proc. & 'E'
BIO.A.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biochemical organization (i.e., atoms, molecules, and macromolecules).
BIO.A.2.2.1 Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules.
BIO.A.2.2.2 Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers.
BIO.A.2.2.3 Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in organisms.

Section 1: Chemical Compounds in the Cell

http://www.brainpop.com/science/matterandchemistry/bodychemistry/

http://www.brainpop.com/health/nutrition/carbohydrates/

http://www.brainpop.com/health/nutrition/fats/

ORGANIC COMPOUND
ELEMENTS COMPRISED
FUNCTION IN THE CELL
EXAMPLES
Carbohydrates
H, C, O
Energy provision
sugars - ex. glucose (C6H12O6);
D-glucose_color_coded.png
starches; cellulose
Lipids (Fats)
H, C, O
Storage of energy for future use; cell membranes
saturated, unsaturated
Proteins







http://www.brainpop.com/health/nutrition/metabolism/

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Organic-Compounds.topicArticleId-8741,articleId-8584.html


NANOTECHNOLOGY! http://www.brainpop.com/science/matterandchemistry/nanotechnology/





ENZYMES http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Enzymes.html
BIO.A.2.3 Explain how enzymes regulate biochemical reactions within a cell.
BIO.A.2.3.1 Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction.
BIO.A.2.3.2 Explain how factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function

how_enzymes_work_c_la_784.jpg
enzymes2.jpg
enzymes.jpg



THE UNIQUE CELL MEMBRANEcell_membrane.png
http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgenetics/cells/

http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgenetics/cellstructures/

http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthanddevelopment/cellspecialization/


ASSESSMENT ANCHOR: BIO.A.4 Homeostasis and Transport (14d)
Anchor Descriptor/ Eligible Content
BIO.A.4.1 Identify and describe the cell structures involved in transport of materials into, out of, and throughout a cell.
BIO.A.4.1.1 Describe how the structure of the plasma membrane allows it to function as a regulatory structure and/or protective barrier for a cell.
BIO.A.4.1.2 Compare the mechanisms that transport materials across the plasma membrane (i.e., passive transport—diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion; and active transport—pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis).
BIO.A.4.1.3 Describe how membranebound cellular organelles (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus) facilitate the transport of materials within a cell.

Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
BIO.A.4.2 Explain mechanisms that permit organisms to maintain biological balance between their internal and external environments.
BIO.A.4.2.1 Explain how organisms maintain homeostasis (e.g., thermoregulation, water regulation, oxygen regulation).


CHAPTER 3, Section 2: Getting Things Into and Out of the Cell

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/responses_to_environment/homeostasisact.shtml


PASSIVE TRANSPORT:
no ATP required; moves from high concentration toward low naturally
  • simple diffusion
  • facilitated diffusion
  • osmosis

external image Osmosis.gif




Results of Osmosis on Cells
external image tonicity.gif



COMPARING ALL PASSIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISMS
external image figure_04_17_labeled.jpg



ACTIVE TRANSPORT:
requires ATP to move items against the concentration gradient from low toward high

c8x16types-transport.jpg
c8x16types-transport.jpg

























Types of Active Transport
  • uniport
  • symport
  • antiport
Fig12_29UniCotransport.GIF
Fig12_29UniCotransport.GIF


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CYTOSIS
  • endocytosis
    • pinocytosis
    • phagocytosis

endocytosis_types.png
endocytosis_types.png

  • exocytosis
Image152.gif
Image152.gif


Assignment 3.2
Go to BioCoach and view these tutorials:

1) Biomembranes I: Membrane Structure and Transport

2) Biomembranes II: Membrane Dynamics and Communication

3) http://www.occc.edu/biologylabs/Documents/Cells%20Membranes/Cells_Membranes.htm