UNIT 2 - BioEnergetics


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ASSESSMENT ANCHOR: BIO.A.3 Bioenergetics (18d)
Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
BIO.A.3.1 Identify and describe the cell structures involved in processing energy.
BIO.A.3.1.1 Describe the fundamental roles of plastids (e.g., chloroplasts) and mitochondria in energy
transformations.

Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
BIO.A.3.2 Identify and describe how organisms obtain and transform energy for their life processes.
BIO.A.3.2.1 Compare the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
BIO.A.3.2.2 Describe the role of ATP in biochemical reactions.



SECTION 3: PHOTOSYNTHESIS
http://youtu.be/zEgIO9Kq2_Y

BIO.A.3.2 Identify and describe how organisms obtain and transform energy for their life processes.
BIO.A.3.2.1 Compare the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
BIO.A.3.2.2 Describe the role of ATP in biochemical reactions.

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookps.html


photosynthesisa.gif
photosynthesisa.gif

photosynth_summary.jpg
photosynth_summary.jpg

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/methuselah/photosynthesis.html

The whole process doesn't happen all at one time. The process of photosynthesis is divided into two main parts.

1) The first part is called the light dependent reaction and occurs in the thylakoid stacks of the chloroplast. Water molecules are stripped of their oxygen molecules, and the O2 is released from the plant. A PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION reaction happens when the light energy is captured and pushed into a chemical called ATP.

2) The second part of the process happens when the ATP is used to make glucose (the Calvin Cycle) from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. That second part is called the light independent reaction. This occurs in the inner space of the chloroplast.




Check this out for help: http://youtu.be/_wO9f3ER17M
CHECK YOURSELF ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS
1) What 3 Kingdoms have photosynthetic organisms?
2) What is the basic goal of the cellular process of photosynthesis?
3) What are the raw materials needed for photosynthesis?
4) How does each get into the leaf?
5) In what organelle does photosynthesis occur?
6) Which stage of photosynthesis is LIGHT INDEPENDENT (does not require light) and occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast?
7) Which stage of photosynthesis is LIGHT DEPENDENT (requires light) and occurs in the thylakoid stacks of the chloroplast?
8) The main goal of Photophosphorylation stage is to to water; thus, _ is given off as waste during this stage? Then the electrons from this molecular separation are used to make ATP from ADP...this is then used to fuel the next stage called the _ Cycle.
9) The main goal of Calvin-Benson Cycle stage is to build molecules of using the Cs from , the Os from _ and Hs from . This final product is a high energy.

Photosynthesis Songs:
http://youtu.be/C1_uez5WX1o

http://youtu.be/x-t0sGyjfto

CHROMATOGRAPHY VIRTUAL LAB
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab4/intro.html


SECTION 4: CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Interactiver: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cellresp/intro.html

photo_vs_cell_resp3.JPG
photo_vs_cell_resp3.JPG


Cellular respiration:process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuels in cellular respiration, but glucose is most commonly used as an example to examine the reactions and pathways involved.
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cellresp/intro.htmlWhile

Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells and is a process of making glucose to STORE energy in basically 2 steps; Cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm then mitochondria and is the process of releasing ATP energy from the glucose molecule with the help of oxygen. It is a THREE step process:









1) GlycolysisGlycolysis does not need oxygen in any of its steps. It is a metabolic pathway that is found in all living organisms and it probably evolved billions of years ago before the Earth's atmosphere contained oxygen.

  • It is the process that converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate.
  • It releases energy in the form of two molecules of ATP.
  • It takes place in the cytoplasm of the plant or animal cell.

2) Krebs Citric Acid Cycle


  • Aerobic respiration requires oxygen. It is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown. It yields 36 ATP molecules, as well as carbon dioxide, and water. This makes for a total gain of 38 ATP molecules during cellular respiration. This takes place in the mitochondria of the cells.


    Anaerobic respiration doesn't require oxygen. In this process, the pyruvate is only partially broken down.
  • Fermentation (done by yeast and some types of bacteria) breaks the pyruvate down into ethanol, carbon dioxide, and water. It is important in bread making, brewing, and wine making.
  • Lactic acid fermentation breaks the pyruvate down into lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and water. It occurs in the muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. It also occurs in some bacteria. It is this type of bacteria that convert lactose into lactic acid in yoghurt giving it it's sour taste.


  • Both ethyl alcohol and lactic acid contain chemical energy that can't be used by anaerobic respiration, making this an inefficient process. Anaerobic respiration releases a total of two ATP molecules (compare to the 38 of aerobic respiration).


3) Electron Transport Chain




AEROBIC RESPIRATION OVERVIEW

GLYCOLYSIS in the Cytoplasm ----> Krebs CItric Acid Cycle in Mitochondria's Matrix ------> ETC in the mitochondria's Inner Membrane

respiration_overview.jpg



Here is an EXTREMELY helpful animation for understanding AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/


VIRTUAL LAB: CELLULAR RESPIRATION
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab5/intro.html

Aerobic Cellular Respiration Poster Checklist

Labels Needed
  • o Title, name, date, period
  • o Glycolysis Stage 1
  • o Cytoplasm
  • o Glucose
  • o Pyruvate
  • o 2 ATP in
  • o Mitochondria
  • o Mitochondrial Matrix
  • o Krebs Cycle Stage 2
  • o NAD
  • o FAD
  • o ADP
  • o NADH
  • o FADH2
  • o ATP
  • o CO2 waste
  • o ETC (electron transport chain)
  • o Total net of 36-38 ATP


STUDY GUIDE FOR BIOLOGY 9 EXAM: CELLULAR ENERGY PROCESSES
The successful student on this exam will. . .

1) Understand the overall process of and formula for photosynthesis including the anatomical parts of an autotroph that make this process possible and the way each of these things plays a role in energy storage: leaf, roots, stomata, chloroplasts, chlorophyll, thylakoids, stroma, photophsporylation, light dependent & independent stages, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, glucose, starch, Calvin-Benson Cycle, NADP, NADPH, ADP, ATP

2) Understand the overall process of and formula for cellular respiration including the anatomical parts of an autotroph that make this process possible and the way each of these things plays a role in energy release: cytoplasm, mitochondria, matrix, inner membrane space, glucose, pyruvic acid (pyruvate), ADP, ATP, Glycolysis, Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, oxygen, carbon dioxide, NAD, NADH, FAD, FADH2, Electron Transport Chain.

3) Understand how aerobic respiration differs from fermentation (anaerobic respiration) with respect to steps, products, and amount of ATP produced from one glucose molecule.

4) COMPARING PHOTOSYNTHESIS to CELLULAR RESPIRATION

----------PHOTOSYNTHESIS--------
-----CELLULAR RESPIRATION----
Metabolic reaction type


Cells that undergo this process


Organelle(s) where this occurs


Reactants


Products


Waste Gas Produced


Number of Stages


"Cycle" Involved






5) How does blocking Sun out for a decade (nuclear winter from, say, an asteroid impact or supervoclanic explosion) eventually lead to mass extinction of large mammals? (Be specific and thorough.)