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Keystone Biology Anchors
PSSA Anchors 11
UNIT 1 - Basics of Life
UNIT 2 - BioEnergetics
UNIT 3 - Cell Reproduction
UNIT 4 - Genetics
UNIT 4b-Gene Expression
UNIT 4c- Biotechnology
UNIT 5 - Evolution
UNIT 6 - Ecology
UNIT 7 - Taxonomy
UNIT 8 - Dissection
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UNIT 3 - Cell Reproduction
ASSESSMENT ANCHOR: BIO.B.1 Cell Growth and Reproduction (18d)
Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
Describe the three stages of the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division, cytokinesis.
Describe the events that occur during the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division (i.e., mitosis or meiosis), cytokinesis.
Compare the processes and outcomes of mitotic and meiotic nuclear divisions.
Anchor Descriptor /Eligible Content
Explain how genetic information is inherited.
Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information.
Explain the functional relationships between DNA, genes, alleles, and chromosomes and their roles in inheritance.
Chapter 3, Section 5: Reproduction and the Cell Cycle
Limits to Cell Size & Size comparisons:
Haploid, Diploid, Mitosis, Meiosis, Binary Fission, Cell Cycle, Cytokinesis, Chromosome, Chromatid, Centromere, Synapsis, Chiasma, Tetrads, Homologous Chromosomes, microtubules, kinetocores, spindle fibers, equatorial plate, apoptosis, telomere
THE CELL CYCLE & ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
TYPES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
BINARY FISSION (PROKARYOTES)-------------------------------------------------------MITOSIS (EUKARYOTES)
CHECK YOURSELF ON CELL CYCLE AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
b) What is mitosis?
c) In which stage of mitosis does the nuclear membrane begin to disappear and chromatin coils into double chromosomes?
d) What is a centromere? A chromatid? Spindle fibers / microtubules? Centrioles / Asters?
e) In which stage of mitosis do the double chromosomes line up single file down the equatorial line of the cell?
f ) What moves the double chromosomes around and where does it attach to them?
g) In which stage of mitosis do spindle fibers contract and pull double chromosome chromatids apart into individual chromosomes and pull them to opposite sides of the cell?
h) In which stage of mitosis does the nuclear membrane begin to Reappear and chromatids/single chromosomes UNcoil into strandy chromatin again?
hat is cytokinesis?
) How do the steps in binary fission differ from MITOSIS even though both are ASEXUAL reproduction?
k) Why is fission a faster process?
l) Mitosis begins with a diploid cell and ends with how many cells of what ploidy?
The tip of a plant's root is undergoing constant mitosis to grow into the ground! Can you identify the mitotic stages exhibited in a-d?
: SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AND FORMATION OF GAMETES
COMPARING THE PROCESSES OF
(below left) to
CHECK YOURSELF: MEIOSIS vs. MITOSIS
Can you tell if the phrase refers to Mitosis, Meiosis, Neither, or Both?
a) Starts with one diploid cell, ends with 4 haploid daughter cells.
b) Starts with one cell, ends with two identical daughter cells.
c) Synapsis happens (crossing over & trading of pieces of the chromatid arms)
d) Has two divisions.
e) Bacteria use this process.
f) Makes autosomal body cells.
g) Makes gametes.
Answer the following questions as short answer.
h) During which stage of Meiosis do the tetrads line up in PAIRS along the equator of the cell and trade pieces of chromosomes in a phenomenon called crossing over?
i) During which stage to homologues get separated from one another and migrate to opposite centrioles?
j) Which part of Meiosis mimics mitosis, Meiosis I or Meiosis II?
2/3/2012----------------QUESTIONS DUE AT END OF PERIOD
VIRTUAL LAB- FERTILIZE SEA URCHINS
Questions 1-9 require you to use the virtual lab link above.
1) Urchins are in what Kingdom?
2) What phylum?
3) What species reproduces in the winter (list common name and BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE scientific name)?
4) What species reproduces in the summer (list common name and BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE scientific name)?
5) What species reproduces in the spring (list common name and BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE scientific name)?
6)Sketch and label where the sex glands/gonads of the sea urchins are located.
7) Haploid cells have HALF the chromosomes needed for a species which means when a male and female haploid cell combine, the new fertilized cell is DIPLOID. How can scientists force urchins to release their haploid sex cells and
how do humans and other mammals shed their haploid gametes (sex cells) for fertilization (speak specifically to males and females)?
8) Why is it important to allow the urchins to shed their ova into sea water?
Describe the difference
between the procedures for obtaining sperm vs. eggs from urchins.
Questions 10 - 20 require these diagrams and possibly this link
In preparation for spermatogenesis and oogenesis, germ cells in the gonads go through G1, S and G2. Look at both diagrams above. What is the obvious difference germ (stem) sex cell and the primary spermatocyte/primary oocyte?
11) In spermatogenesis, where are the sperm created?
12) In spermatogenesis, where are the mature sperm kept until ejaculation?
13) In spermatogenesis, how is the secondary spermatocyte different than the primary spermatocyte cell?
14) Look at oogenesis...what stage is released from the ovary during follicle rupture each month AND how does it change on its journey between its release from the ovary and its fertilization in the fallopian tube?
15 - 20) Spermatozoa are essentially motile haploid packets of DNA to be delivered to a haploid egg. Once they merge sketch the series of changes that occurs in the fertilized egg between fertilization and implantation into the uterus wall. Use all of these terms (morula, blastocyst, zygote, cleavage) and refer to the
. [6 pts]
Key Points from this Unit
binary fission, transformation, conjugation, cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, autosomal cells, gametes, haploid, diploid, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis, centrioles, centromeres, telomeres, chromatin, chromosomes, chromatid, histones, spindle fibers
cells have a generally predictable set of stages that they go through during their existence: THE CELL CYCLE (I,G1 - I,S - I,G2 - M - C - G0)
failed apoptosis results in cancer/tumor growth
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes undergo similar but not necessarily identical forms of asexual (cell growth) and sexual reproduction (binary fission vs. mitosis; conjugation vs. meiotic mating and fertilization)
mitosis (in autosomal cells of multicellular organisms) and binary fission (in prokaryotes) result in two genetically identical cells (clones of one another) with a full set of DNA/chromosomes called DIPLOID
meiosis occurs in gamete stem cells & results in four genetically different cells with only HALF the total chromosome number so as to prepare for sexual fertilization to provide the other half
OBSERVING CELLS: MICROSCOPES
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